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Character & essential life skills

Building attitudes, skills and behaviours that support children’s learning and personal development.


By ‘Character’, we mean a set of attitudes, skills and behaviours – such as self-control, confidence, social skills, motivation, and resilience – that are thought to underpin success in school and beyond. These are also referred to as ‘social and emotional skills’, ‘non-cognitive skills’ or ‘essential life skills’. They include the ability to respond to setbacks, work well with others, build relationships, manage emotions, and cope with difficult situations. There is growing evidence that these skills are important to children’s later outcomes.

Guidance Reports

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Toolkit strands

Evidence Summary

Although there is evidence that character / essential life skills in childhood are associated with a range of positive outcomes at school and beyond, much less is known about how these skills can be developed and whether they lead to increased academic attainment.

Few robust studies in the UK have explored the extent to which schools can influence these skills, and their impact on other outcomes. Improved behavioural, social and emotional outcomes do not always translate into improved grades, but schools may well wish to pursue them for their wider benefits irrespective of impacts on attainment.

The evidence in our Toolkit  and the EEF’s literature review on non-cognitive skills suggest that character-related approaches can be most effective for improving attainment when they are specifically linked to learning. For example, interventions that focus solely on raising aspirations without clear steps on what children can do to make progress appear to have little positive impact on attainment.

Social and emotional learning programmes appear to be more effective when approaches are embedded into routine educational practices, and supported by professional development and training for staff. Evaluations of programmes such as SEAL and PATHS in English schools suggest that the quality of implementation of these programme, and the degree to which teachers are committed to the approach, appear to be particularly important.

The EEF now has funded trials of 15 projects with a focus on character / essential life skills. One completed project provides encouraging initial evidence:

  • Changing Mindsets sought to improve academic attainment by supporting pupils to develop a ‘growth mindset’: the theory that intelligence is not a fixed characteristic, but can instead be increased through effort. The independent evaluation found positive impacts on reading and maths scores for Year 5 students, when the approach was delivered through six structured workshops. The method of delivering the approach was important, and light-touch training in the theory of growth mindset did not have an impact.

The EEF has re-granted for two further, larger scale trials of this project, with the independent evaluation measuring character / essential life skills outcomes in addition to attainment.

Most studies of character interventions have been conducted in the US, and transferring these approaches to the UK can be a challenge. For example, our trial of Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) did not find positive effects on academic attainment, possibly because teachers struggled to implement the programme in full.


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Philosophy for Children (re-grant)


Testing a philosophy programme that aims to develop children’s social skills and cognitive ability, and improve the quality of teachers’ talk

Evidence Strength
Impact (months)
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